The Khilafat-e-Usmania agreement was a significant event in the history of the subcontinent. It was a political movement started by the Muslims of India in the early 20th century to save the Ottoman Caliphate, which was facing a crisis. The agreement aimed to unite the Indian Muslim community under one flag and to support the Ottoman Empire.
The Khilafat movement was started by the Ali brothers, Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar and Maulana Shaukat Ali, in 1919. The movement gained momentum when the Treaty of Sevres was signed in July 1920, which resulted in the dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire after World War I. The treaty also threatened to abolish the Ottoman Caliphate, which was seen as an attack on the Muslim community’s religious beliefs.
The Khilafat committee was formed in November 1919 to plan and coordinate the movement. The committee was headed by Maulana Azad, and its members included prominent leaders and intellectuals such as Dr. Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, and Hakim Ajmal Khan.
The Khilafat movement used different methods to protest against the proposed abolition of the Ottoman Caliphate. The protests included boycotts, strikes, and demonstrations. The movement also formed alliances with the Indian National Congress and appealed to Mahatma Gandhi for support. The Congress agreed to support the movement, and it became a part of the larger Non-Cooperation Movement.
On March 1, 1920, a historic agreement was signed between the Khilafat leaders and the Congress at Allahabad. The agreement stated that the Congress would support the Khilafat movement and that the Khilafat leaders would support the Congress in its non-cooperation movement against the British colonial government. The agreement united the Muslims and the Hindus under one flag against the British rule.
The Khilafat movement, however, lost its momentum in 1922 when the Ottoman Caliphate was abolished by the Turkish Nationalists. The movement resulted in the split of the Indian Muslim community between the conservatives and the modernists. The conservatives felt betrayed by the British and their allies, while the modernists supported the British and the Congress.
In conclusion, the Khilafat-e-Usmania agreement was a significant event in the history of the subcontinent. It united the Indian Muslim community under one flag and provided a platform for the political aspirations of the Muslims. The movement also highlighted the importance of religious identity in the political discourse of India. Nonetheless, the Khilafat movement failed to achieve its goal of saving the Ottoman Caliphate, and it resulted in the fragmentation of the Indian Muslim community.